Evaluating Anycast in the Domain Name System

Evaluating Anycast in the Domain Name System

Fan, Xun and Heidemann, John and Govindan, Ramesh
USC/Information Sciences Institute

Xun Fan, John Heidemann and Ramesh Govindan 2013. Evaluating Anycast in the Domain Name System. Proceedings of the IEEE Infocom (Turin, Italy, Apr. 2013), 1681–1689.

Abstract

IP anycast is a central part of production DNS. While prior work has explored proximity, affinity and load balancing for some anycast services, there has been little attention to third-party discovery and enumeration of components of an anycast service. Enumeration can reveal abnormal service configurations, benign masquerading or hostile hijacking of anycast services, and help characterize anycast deployment. In this paper, we discuss two methods to identify and characterize anycast nodes. The first uses an existing anycast diagnosis method based on CHAOS-class DNS records but augments it with traceroute to resolve ambiguities. The second proposes Internet-class DNS records which permit accurate discovery through the use of existing recursive DNS infrastructure. We validate these two methods against three widely-used anycast DNS services, using a very large number (60k and 300k) of vantage points, and show that they can provide excellent precision and recall. Finally, we use these methods to evaluate anycast deployments in top-level domains (TLDs), and find one case where a third-party operates a server masquerading as a root DNS anycast node as well as a noticeable proportion of unusual DNS proxies. We also show that, across all TLDs, up to 72% use anycast.

Reference

@inproceedings{Fan13a,
  author = {Fan, Xun and Heidemann, John and Govindan, Ramesh},
  title = {Evaluating Anycast in the Domain Name System},
  booktitle = {Proceedings of the  IEEE Infocom},
  year = {2013},
  sortdate = {2013-04-01},
  project = {ant, amite, lacrend, lander, research_root},
  jsubject = {traffic_detection},
  pages = {1681--1689},
  month = apr,
  address = {Turin, Italy},
  publisher = {IEEE},
  location = {johnh: pafile},
  keywords = {anycast, discovery, topology, DNS, F-root, PCH, Netalyzr},
  url = {http://www.isi.edu/%7ejohnh/PAPERS/Fan13a.html},
  pdfurl = {http://www.isi.edu/%7ejohnh/PAPERS/Fan13a.pdf},
  myorganization = {USC/Information Sciences Institute},
  copyrightholder = {IEEE},
  copyrightterms = {
  	Personal use of this material is permitted.  Permission from IEEE must
  	be obtained for all other uses, in any current or future media,
  	including reprinting/republishing this material for advertising or
  	promotional purposes, creating new collective works, for resale or
  	redistribution to servers or lists, or reuse of any copyrighted
  	component of this work in other works.
    }
}

Copyright

Personal use of this material is permitted. Permission from IEEE must be obtained for all other uses, in any current or future media, including reprinting/republishing this material for advertising or promotional purposes, creating new collective works, for resale or redistribution to servers or lists, or reuse of any copyrighted component of this work in other works.